Gentrification researchers taking a coffee break.... Elvin Wyly (left) and David Ley (right), Granville Island, Vancouver, July 2003
Northcote Road, Battersea, London
This bibliography will always be under construction! We hope it will be helpful to to academics, students, professionals and anyone who wants to learn more about gentrification. Due to the enormity of the task of compiling a comprehensive gentrification bibliography, we have only included those academic texts where gentrification is a central concern. We accept that some important works may have been omitted, and encourage viewers of this site to contact us with some references which we can add to this bibliography. Anyone looking for a more extensive bibliography (though somewhat dated) are advised to consult a monograph by N. Smith and A. Herod (1991) "Gentrification: A Comprehensive Bibliography", Discussion Paper, Department of Geography, Rutgers University, March 1991, New Series, No.1. Smith's 1996 book (below) has an extensive and more recent bibliography, as does the book by David Ley (1996).
Abu-Lughod, J. (ed)(1994) From Urban Village to East Village: The Battle for New York's Lower East Side (Blackwell, Oxford).
Anderson, E. (1990) Streetwise: Race, Class and Change in an Urban Community (University of Chicago Press, Chicago).
Atkinson, R. (2000) "The hidden costs of gentrification: displacement in Central London", Journal of Housing and the Built Environment 15 (4) pp307-326.
Atkinson, R. (2000) "Measuring gentrification and displacement in Greater London", Urban Studies 37 (1) pp149-165.
Atkinson, R. (2001) "Domestication by cappuccino or a revenge on urban space?", Unpublished paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Institute of British Geographers, University of Plymouth, January 2001.
Badcock, B. and Urlich-Cloher, D. (1981) "Neighbourhood change in inner Adelaide", Urban Studies 18 pp41-55.
Badcock, B. (1989) "Smith's rent-gap hypothesis: an Australian view", Annals of the Association of American Geographers 79, pp125-145.
Badcock, B. (1991) "Neighbourhood change in inner Adelaide: an update", Urban Studies 28 pp553-558.
Badcock, B. (1993) "Notwithstanding the exaggerated claims, residential revitalization really is changing the form of some Western cities: a response to Bourne", Urban Studies 30 (1), pp191-195.
Badcock, B. (1995) "Building on the foundations of gentrification: inner city housing development in Australia in the 1990s" Urban Geography 16 pp70-90.
Badcock, B. (2001) "Thirty years on: gentrification and class changeover in Adelaide's inner suburbs, 1966-96", Urban Studies 38 (9), pp1559-1572.
Barry, J. and Derevlany, J. (eds) (1987) Yuppies invade my house at dinnertime: a tale of brunch, bombs and gentrification in an American city (Big River Publishing: Hoboken, NJ.).
Beauregard, R. (1985) "Politics, ideology and theories of gentrification", Journal of Urban Affairs 7 pp51-62.
Beauregard, R. (1986) "The chaos and complexity of gentrification", in N.Smith and P.Williams (eds) Gentrification of the City (Unwin Hyman, London).
Beauregard, R. (1990) "Trajectories of neighbourhood change: the case of gentrification", Environment and Planning A 22 pp855-874
Berry, B. (1985) "Islands of renewal in seas of decay", in P. Peterson (ed) The New Urban Reality (Washington DC: The Brookings Institution).
Blomley, N. (1997a) "The properties of space: history, geography and gentrification", Urban Geography 18 (4) pp286-295.
Blomley, N. (1997b) "Property, pluralism and the gentrification frontier", Canadian Journal of Law and Society 12 (2) pp187-218.
Blomley, N. (1998) "Landscapes of property", Law and Society Review 32 (3) pp657-672.
Bondi, L. (1991) "Gender divisions and gentrification: a critique", Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 16 (2) pp190-198.
Bondi, L. (1998) "Sexing the City", in R. Fincher and J.M. Jacobs (eds) Cities of Difference (Guilford, New York) pp177-200.
Bondi, L. (1999a) "Between the woof and the weft: a response to Loretta Lees", Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, Vol. 17, 253-260.
Bondi, L. (1999b) "Gender, class and gentrification: enriching the debate", Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 17 (3) pp261-282.
Bourne, L. (1993a) "The demise of gentrification? A commentary and prospective view", Urban Geography 14 (1), pp95-107.
Bourne, L. (1993b) "The myth and reality of gentrification: a commentary on emerging urban forms", Urban Studies 30 (1) pp183-189.
Bourassa, S. (1993) "The rent-gap debunked", Urban Studies 30 pp1731-1734.
Bridge, G. (1994) "Gentrification, class and residence: a reappraisal", Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 12 pp31-51.
Bridge, G. (1995) "The space for class? On class analysis in the study for gentrification", Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 20 (2) pp236-247.
Bridge, G. (2001) "Estate agents as interpreters of economic and cultural capital: the gentrification premium in the Sydney housing market" International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 25 (1) pp87-101.
Butler, T. and Hamnett, C. (1994) "Gentrification, class and gender: some comments on Warde's gentrification as consumption", Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 12 pp477-493.
Butler, T. (1995) "Gentrification and the urban middle classes", in T. Butler and M. Savage (eds) Social Change and the Middle Classes (London: UCL Press) pp188-204.
Butler, T. (1997) Gentrification and the Middle Classes (Ashgate, Aldershot).
Butler, T. and Robson, G. (2001) "Social capital, gentrification and neighbourhood change in London: a comparison of three south London neighbourhoods", Urban Studies 38 (12) pp2145-2162.
Carpenter, J. and Lees, L. (1995) "Gentrification in New York, London and Paris: an international comparison", International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 19 (2) pp286-303.
Castells, M. (1983) "Cultural identity, sexual liberation and urban structure: the gay community in San Francisco" in M. Castells The City and the Grassroots: A Cross-Cultural Theory of Urban Social Movements (Edward Arnold, London) pp138-170.
Caulfield, J. (1989) "Gentrification and desire", Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 26 (4) pp617-632.
Caulfield, J. (1994) City Form and Everyday Life: Toronto's gentrification and critical social practice (University of Toronto Press, Toronto)
Clark, E. (1987) The Rent Gap and Urban Change: Case Studies in Malmo 1860-1985 (Lund: Lund University Press)
Clark, E. (1988) "The rent-gap and transformation of the built environment: case studies in Malmo 1860-1985", Geografiska Annaler 70B, pp241-254.
Clark, E. (1992) "On blindness, centrepieces and complementarity in gentrification theory", Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 17 pp358-362.
Clark, E. (1994) "Toward a Copenhagen interpretation of gentrification", Urban Studies 31 (7) pp1033-1042.
Cordova, T. (1991) "Community intervention efforts to oppose gentrification" in P.Nyden and W. Wiewel (eds.) Challenging Uneven Development (Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick).
Curran, W. (2001) "City policy and urban renewal: a case study of Fort Greene, Brooklyn", in I. Miyares, M. Pavlovskaya and G. Pope (editors) From Hudson to The Hamptons: snapshots of the New York Metropolitan Area (Washington DC, Association of American Geographers) pp.61-69.
Cybriwsky, R. (1978) "Social aspects of neighbourhood change", Annals of the Association of American Geographers 68 pp17-33.
Cybriwsky, R., Ley, D. and Western, J. (1986) "The political and social construction of revitalized neighborhoods: Society Hill, Philadelphia, and False Creek, Vancouver", in N. Smith and P. Williams (eds) Gentrification of the City (Unwin Hyman, London) pp92-120.
Dantas, A. (1988) "Overspill as an alternative style of gentrification: the case of Riverdale, Toronto" in T. Bunting and P. Filion (eds) The Changing Canadian Inner City (Waterloo, ON: Department of Geography, University of Waterloo, Publication Series 31) pp73-86.
Eade, J. and Mele, C. (1998) "The Eastern Promise of New York and London", Rising East 1 (3), pp52-73.
Eastwood, C. (2002) Near West Side Stories: Struggles for Community in Chicago's Maxwell Street Neighbourhood (Chicago: Lake Claremont Press).
Filion, P. (1991) "The gentrification-social structure dialectic: a Toronto case study", International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 15 (4) pp553-574.
Glass, R. (1964) "Aspects of Change", in Centre for Urban Studies (ed) London: Aspects of Change (MacGibbon and Kee, London).
Gratz, R. and Mintz. N. (1998) Cities Back From The Edge: new life for downtown (New York: Wiley and Sons).
Hackworth, J. (2001), "Inner-city real estate investment, gentrification, and economic recession in New York City", Environment and Planning A, Vol. 33, pp863-880.
Hackworth, J. and Smith, N. (2001) "The changing state of gentrification", Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 92 (4) pp464-477.
Hammel, D. (1999) "Gentrification and land rent: an historical view of the rent gap in Minneapolis":, Urban Geography 20 (2) pp116-145.
Hammel, D. and Wyly, E. (1996) "A model for identifying gentrified areas with census data" Urban Geography 17 pp248-268.
Hamnett, C. (1973) "Improvement grants as an indicator of gentrification in inner London", Area 5, pp252-261.
Hamnett, C. (1984) "Gentrification and residential location theory: a review and assessment", in D. Herbert and R.J.Johnston (eds) Geography and the Urban Environment: Progress in Research and Applications (Wiley and Sons, New York) pp282-319.
Hamnett, C. (1991) "The blind men and the elephant: the explanation of gentrification", Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 16 (2) pp173-189.
Hamnett, C. (1992) "Gentrifiers or lemmings? A response to Neil Smith", Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 17 (1) pp116-119.
Hamnett, C. (2000) "Gentrification, postindustrialism, and industrial and occupational restructuring in global cities", in G. Bridge and S. Watson (eds) A Companion to the City (Oxford: Basil Blackwell) pp331-341.
Hamnett, C. and Randolph, B. (1984) "The role of landlord disinvestment in housing market transformation: an analysis of the flat break-up market in central London", Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 9, pp259-279.
Hamnett, C. and Williams, P. (1980) "Social change in London: a study of gentrification", Urban Affairs Quarterly 15 (4) pp469-487.
Harvey, T. et al (1999) "Gentrification and West Oakland: causes, effects and best practices", Unpublished paper written by graduate students in City and Regional Planning, University of California, Berkeley.
Jackson, P. (1985) "Neighbourhood change in New York: the loft conversion process", Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 76 (3) pp202-215.
Jacobs, J.M. (1996) "Eastern trading: diasporas, dwelling and place", in J.M. Jacobs, Edge of Empire: postcolonialism and the city (London: Routledge) pp70-102.
Jacobs, J.M. (1999) "Cultures of the past and urban transformation: the Spitalfields Market redevelopment in East London", in K. Anderson and F. Gale (eds) Cultural Geographies (Sydney: Longman) pp241-261.
Jager, M. (1986) "Class definition and the aesthetics of gentrification: Victoriana in Melbourne", in N.Smith and P.Williams (eds) Gentrification of the City (Unwin Hyman, London).
Kary, K. (1988) "The gentrification of Toronto and the rent-gap theory", in T. Bunting and P. Filion (eds) The Changing Canadian Inner City (Waterloo, ON: Department of Geography, University of Waterloo, Publication Series 31).
Kasinitz, P. (1988) "The gentrification of 'Boerum Hill': neighbourhood change and conflicts over definitions", Qualitative Sociology 11 (3) pp163-182.
Knopp, L. (1990) "Exploiting the rent gap: the theoretical significance of using illegal appraisal schemes to encourage gentrification in New Orleans", Urban Geography 11, pp48-64.
Knopp, L. (1995) "Sexuality and urban space: a framework for analysis", in D. Bell and G. Valentine (eds) Mapping Desire: Geographies of Sexualities (London: Routledge) pp149-161.
Krase, J. (1982) Self and Community in the City (Lanham, MD: University Press of America) esp. pp111-119.
Laska, S. and Spain, D. (eds) (1980) Back to the City: issues in neighbourhood renovation (New York: Pergamon Press).
Lauria, M. and Knopp, L. (1985) "Toward an analysis of the role of gay communities in the urban renaissance", Urban Geography 6 pp152-169.
Lees, L. (1994a) "Gentrification in London and New York: an Atlantic gap?", Housing Studies 9 (2) pp199-217.
Lees, L. (1994b) "Rethinking gentrification: beyond the positions of economics or culture", Progress in Human Geography 18 (2) pp137-150.
Lees, L. and Bondi, L. (1995) "De/gentrification and economic recession: the case of New York City", Urban Geography 16 pp234-253.
Lees, L. (1996) "In the pursuit of difference: representations of gentrification", Environment and Planning A, 28 pp453-470.
Lees, L. (1999) "The weaving of gentrification discourse and the boundaries of the gentrification community", Enviroment and Planning D: Society and Space 17 pp127-132.
Lees, L. (2000) "A Re-appraisal of gentrification: towards a geography of gentrification", Progress in Human Geography, 24:3 pp389-408.
Ley, D. (1980) "Liberal ideology and the post-industrial city", Annals of the Association of American Geographers 70 pp.238-258.
Ley, D. (1981) "Inner-city revitalization in Canada: a Vancouver case study", Canadian Geographer 25 pp124-148.
Ley, D. (1986) "Alternative explanations for inner-city gentrification: a Canadian assessment", Annals of the Association of American Geographers 76 (4), pp521-535.
Ley, D. (1987) "The rent-gap revisited", Annals of the Association of American Geographers 77 pp465-468.
Ley, D. (1992) "Gentrification in recession: social change in six Canadian inner-cities, 1981-1986", Urban Geography 13 (3), pp.230-256.
Ley, D. (1994) "Gentrification and the politics of the new middle class", Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, Vol. 12, pp.53-74.
Ley, D. (1996) The New Middle Class and the Remaking of the Central City (Oxford University Press, Oxford).
Lyons, M. (1996) "Employment, feminisation and gentrification in London 1981-93", Environment and Planning A 28, pp341-356.
Mele, C. (2000) Selling The Lower East Side: culture, real estate, and resistance in New York City (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press)
Mills, C. (1988) "Life on the upslope: the postmodern landscape of gentrification", Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 6 pp169-189.
Munt, I. (1987) "Economic restructuring, culture, and gentrification: a case study in Battersea, London", Environment and Planning A 19 pp1175-1197.
Palen, J. and London, B. (eds) (1984) Gentrification, Displacement and Neighbourhood Revitalisation (State Univ. of New York Press, Albany).
Podmore, J. (1998) "(Re)Reading the 'loft living' habitus in Montreal's inner city", International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 22, pp283-302.
Raban, J. (1974) Soft City (Verso, London).
Redfern, P. (1997a) "A new look at gentrification: 1. gentrification and domestic technologies", Environment and Planning A 29 pp1275-1296.
Redfern, P. (1997b) "A new look at gentrification: 2. a model of gentrification", Environment and Planning A 29 pp1335-1354.
Robinson, T. (1995) "Gentrification and grassroots resistance in San Francisco's Tenderloin", Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 30, pp483-513.
Robson, G. and Butler, T. (2001) "Coming to terms with London: middle-class communities in a global city", International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 25 (1) pp70-86.
Rose, D. (1984) "Rethinking gentrification: beyond the uneven development of Marxist urban theory", Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 1 pp47-74.
Rose, D. (1989) "A feminist perspective on employment restructuring and gentrification: the case of Montreal", in J. Wolch and M. Dear (eds) The Power of Geography (Winchester, MA: Unwin Hyman).
Rose, D. (1996) "Economic restructuring and the diversification of gentrification in the 1980s: a view from a marginal metropolis", in J. Caulfield and L. Peake (eds) City Lives and City Forms: critical research and Canadian urbanism (Toronto: University of Toronto Press) pp131-172.
Rothenberg, T. (1995) "And she told two friends: lesbians creating urban social space", in D. Bell and G. Valentine (eds) Mapping Desire: Geographies of Sexualities (Routledge, London) pp165-181.
Schaffer, R. and Smith, N. (1986) "The gentrification of Harlem?":, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 76 pp347-365.
Slater, T. (2002) "Looking at the 'North American City' through the lens of gentrification discourse", Urban Geography 23 (2) pp131-153.
Slater, T., Curran, W. and Lees, L. (2004) "Gentrification research: new directions and critical scholarship", Environment and Planning A 36 (7) pp1141-1150.
Slater, T. (2004) "North American gentrification? Revanchist and emancipatory perspectives explored", Environment and Planning A 36 (7) pp1191-1213.
Slater, T. (2004) "Municipally-managed gentrification in South Parkdale, Toronto", The Canadian Geographer 48 (3) pp303-325.
Smith, A. (1989) "Gentrification and the spatial contribution of the state: the restructuring of London's Docklands", Antipode 21 (3) pp232-260.
Smith, N. (1979) "Toward a theory of gentrification; a back to the city movement by capital not people", Journal of the American Planning Association 45, pp538-548.
Smith, N. (1982) "Gentrification and uneven development", Economic Geography 58 pp139-155.
Smith, N. (1986) "Gentrification, the frontier and the restructuring of urban space", in N. Smith and P. Williams (eds) Gentrification of the City (Unwin Hyman, London) pp15-34.
Smith, N. (1987a) "Of yuppies and housing: gentrification, social restructuring and the urban dream", Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 5 pp151-172.
Smith, N. (1987b) "Gentrification and the rent-gap", Annals of the Association of American Geographers 77 (3) pp462-465.
Smith, N. (1992) "Blind manís buff, or Hamnettís philosophical individualism in search of gentrification?", Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 17 (1) pp110-115.
Smith, N. (1996) The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City (Routledge, London and New York).
Smith, N. and DeFilippis, J. (1999) "The reassertion of economics: 1990s gentrification in the Lower East Side", International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 23 pp638-653.
Sommers, J. (1998), "Men at the margin: masculinity and space in downtown Vancouver, 1950-1986", Urban Geography, Vol. 19, pp287-310.
Stanziola, J. (1999) Arts, Government and Community Revitalization (Ashgate, Aldershot).
Sykora, L. (1993) "City in transition: the role of rent gaps in Prague's revitalization", Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 84 pp281-293.
Sykora, L. (1996) "Economic and social restructuring and gentrification in Prague", Acta Facultatis Rerum Naturalium Universitatis Comenianae (Geographica) 37 pp71-81.
Taylor, M. (1992) "Can you go home again? Black gentrification and the dilemma of difference", Berkeley Journal of Sociology 37, pp121-138.
The Planning Center of the Municipal Art Society, Fifth Avenue Committee, and the Association for Neighbourhood and Housing Development (2001) Displacement And What To Do About It: strategies for success (New York, USA).
Urban Habitat Program (1999) There Goes The Neighbourhood: a regional analysis of gentrification and community stability in the San Francisco Bay Area. San Francisco, USA.
van Kempen, R. and van Weesep, J. (1994) "Gentrification and the urban poor: restructuring and housing policy in Utrecht", Urban Studies 31 (7) pp1043-1056.
van Weesep, J. and Musterd, S. (eds) (1991) Urban Housing for the Better-Off : Gentrification in Europe (Stedelijke Netwerken, Utrecht).
van Weesep, J. (1994) "Gentrification as a research frontier", Progress in Human Geography 18 (1), pp74-83.
Warde, A. (1991) "Gentrification as consumption: issues of class and gender", Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 9 pp223-232.
Williams, P. (1976) "The role of institutions in the inner-London housing market: the case of Islington", Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers NS 1 pp72-82.
Williams, P. (1986) "Class constitution through spatial reconstruction? A re-evaluation of gentrification in Australia, Britain and the United States", in N.Smith and P.Williams (eds) Gentrification of the City (Unwin Hyman, London).
Wilson, D. (1993) "Everyday life, spatiality and inner-city disinvestment in a US City", International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 17, pp578-594.
Wyly, E. and Hammel, D. (1998) "Modelling the context and contingency of gentrification", Journal of Urban Affairs 20 pp303-326.
Wyly, E. and Hammel, D. (1999) "Islands of Decay in Seas of Renewal: urban policy and the resurgence of gentrification", Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 10, pp711-771.
Wyly, E. and Hammel, D. (2001) "Gentrification, housing policy, and the new context of urban redevelopment", Critical Perspectives on Urban Redevelopment Volume 6 (London: Elsevier Science) pp211-276.
Zukin, S. (1987) "Gentrification: culture and capital in the urban core", American Review of Sociology 13 p139-147.
Zukin, S. (1989, 2nd edition) Loft Living: Culture and Capital in Urban Change (Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick).
created by Tom Slater,
last modified: February 2002